Horner Museum Tour Guide Series
By Kenneth Munford
(Originally published in the Horner Museum Tour Guide Series, April 8, 1978)
Director: Lucy Skjelstad. Tour Guides: Robert Torley and Ken Munford, assisted by Wally Weltzin and Harriet Moore
Agricultural, educational, religious, and political institutions of Oregon hark back to a small group of dedicated people whom Rev. Jason Lee led into the Willamette Valley in 1834. The missionary zeal of this band of Methodists and of others who supported them had been fired by an article in the Christian Advocate and Journal on March 1, 1833. It told of four Flathead Indians coming from the Rocky mountains to St. Louis in search of the white man's "Book of Heaven" and asking General William Clark, the Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, that missionaries be sent to the Indians. The Methodists rose to the challenge.
Wilbur Fisk of Wesleyan University recommended Jason Lee to lead a party of missionaries to the western Indians. A native of Stanstead, Quebec, Lee had prepared himself as a minister and teacher and was awaiting appointment to a mission in Canada when the call to the Western Ministry came, and he was appointed missionary to the Flathead Indians in 1833. He and four other missionaries came west with Nathaniel Wyeth, a Boston merchant who wanted to establish trade in the far west. They arrived at Fort Hall (near Pocatello, Idaho) in July 1834, and on the 27th Lee preached the first sermon ever delivered in the Oregon Country. The missionaries were well received at Fort Vancouver. Dr. McLoughlin recommended that they set up their first mission in the Willamette Valley rather than returning to the Flatheads in the Rocky Mountains. He gave them help in getting settled.
Today we are going to visit several sites of the missionaries' activities, especially in Mission Bottom and Salem. En route we will pass through and comment on several communities that are not directly connected with the Methodists, but that have had or are having an interesting part in the development of this valley: Jefferson, Marion, Turner, Western Baptist Bible College, Waldo Hills, and Chemawa. We will pause to eat our sack lunches near the Wheatland Ferry, a short distance from the site of the first mission buildings. Later we will follow the missionaries to their second location in Chemeketa (Salem) and tour the houses they built, which have been preserved as part of the Mission Mill Museum.
Comment on Jefferson: Jacob Conser, a pioneer of 1848, established a ferry at this strategic location on the Santiam River just north of Hardscrabble Hill, where the North and South branches of the Santiam join. A school near Conser's Ferry, established in 1856 and incorporated in 1857, combined half a dozen neighboring schools and was called Jefferson Institute. Its income came from tuition and donations. Local people liked the name Jefferson better than Conser's Ferry and changed the post office to Jefferson in 1861.
When Ben Holladay built the Oregon and California Railroad (O&C) south through the valley from Portland, he found Conser's Ferry the best place to cross the Santiam and built a bridge here. A shipping point here proved advantageous to the surrounding country and Jefferson prospered. The Pacific Highway (U.S. 99E) came this way also and further aided the community. The new routing of 99E and I-5, however, bypassed Jefferson and its growth rate has languished.
Comment on Hamilton Campbell House: (From personal communication with Philip Dole) Hamilton Campbell, a member of the Great Reinforcement of 1840, was a man of many talents. He was from Virginia, a carpenter, joiner and furniture maker by trade.
This house reflects a transference of a southern ideal and style of living to Oregon. The floor plan is typically southern, with (originally) a very symmetrical floor plan. A central hall, entered directly by the front door served as a dining room, with a living room and back bedroom on one side matched by a parlor and back bedroom on the other. Originally, stairs went up in both front corners of the house. The house was superior in construction and somewhat more imaginative than most of those of the period, probably because of Campbell's professional talents as a carpenter and "architect." Note the rare and beautiful trim at the corners. Few houses with exterior detail are as elegant. The exterior form of the present house is original, with the addition of the front porch (late Victorian). The original door was recessed, and there was probably no front porch. The original clapboard is covered now with an asbestos siding, but the front wall has all its original openings. The driveway side now has some windows, in a wall that was originally blank.
Campbell did a variety of things, including making the dies for the "Beaver" gold coins in 1849, and spending four to six months at the California gold mines. Later he was a photographer in Corvallis and Eugene City (1854 to 1859). He also did watch repair. He was murdered by bandits while serving as superintendent of mines in Guaymos, Mexico.
The Campbell claim goes back to 1845, and the house was apparently built in 1850 or 1851, as the records show that Campbell's assessments jumped by $14,000 in that period.
Mr. Dole now suspects that the Biddle House, in Corvallis, was also planned and largely carpentered by Hamilton Campbell. The facts that Campbell's wife was Harriet Biddle and that the house was constructed during the period that Campbell was in Corvallis give strong supportive evidence to this conclusion.
Note as we move on that we parallel the old O&C right-of-way around Miller Butte to Marion.
Comment on Marion: The builders of the O&C planned to have a station on Mill Creek seven miles north of here. It was to be called Marion, for Marion County, which in turn was named for Francis Marion, Revolutionary War general. Materials to build a station and warehouse were shipped from Portland, but the man in charge of the shipment made a mistake and threw it off here. Rather than reloading and moving the materials back to the intended location, officials decided to leave it here, build another station, and retain the name Marion for it. As we move on through the rich farmland, we leave the railroad for a while but rejoin it at Turner.
Comment at Turner: After the O&C officials discovered that the materials to build the Marion station had been offloaded at the wrong location, they sent a new shipment to this location and named the new station Turner, for Henry L. Turner, a well known pioneer of this vicinity.
In 1878, Turner was described (in the Illustrated Atlas of Marion & Linn Counties) as being "in the midst of a very prosperous farming community. It ships annually a large quantity of grain and other products. The site of the town is both pleasant and healthful, being located on gently rolling prairie land near Mill Creek. A fine new mill has recently been erected on the creek. The price of land varies from $15 to $30 per acre."
Comment on Turner Tabernacle: Reverend Ezra Fisher, a Missionary Baptist wrote in 1852 about a small group of eight or nine Baptists who worshipped near here in a log school house just 20 by 22 ft. in size. They called the church "Shiloh." He told of the beauties of the natural scenery in the area, and of the rich farmland, and of the Baptists he said, "Even though they are surrounded by Methodists, Campbellites, anti-missionary Baptists, and unbelievers, the flock is true."
Competition for "souls" was apparently keen, and church affairs not always smooth, for he also tells of a Rev. Davis, who did something so immoral that two meetings were held to discuss his retention. At the first it was decided that he should stay, but at the second they "rebuked" him. (What he did is lost to the record, apparently sufficiently horrendous that Rev. Fisher could not bring himself to commit the words to paper.)
The words on the present building reflect the missionary zeal which has been a part of this corner of Oregon since Rev. Fisher's words were written: "Go Ye Into All the World and Preach the Gospel to Every Creature" (Mark 16:15).
Comment by Ken Munford, approaching Western Baptist Bible College: Tuberculosis was one of the diseases that decimated the Indians of western Oregon and left this valley rather sparsely populated at the arrival of white settlers. One of the first Indian children received at the Methodist mission, an Umpqua lad, died of consumption, as tuberculosis was commonly called, and almost brought deadly vengeance on Cyrus Shepard and Daniel Lee. Along with diphtheria, malaria, and smallpox, tuberculosis helped in ruining the missionaries' hopes of continuing an Indian school.
Consumption took its toll of white settlers also. It contributed to Jason Lee's death at age 41. My own father, an immigrant of 1907, died of tuberculosis in 1918 at age 45. He was a medical doctor. Two of his brothers were also doctors, but they could do nothing to save his life nor that of one of their sisters, who also died of consumption. The best medical science could do in that day was to retard the growth of tubercles in the lungs. Complete cure and recovery of advanced cases was extremely rare.
Sanatoriums were built to store patients for their final months, and various schemes of treating them were tried. Lodges, associations, and states built facilities. The State of Oregon built two hospitals, one in the drier climate of Pendleton and one here near Salem, close to the center of population. In the mid-1930s, I visited a patient here at the state tuberculosis hospital and I remember thinking at the time that despite his optimism that he would recover, there was little chance of his ever doing so. He responded well to new treatments, however, and did recover, and eventually went back to work as a meter reader for the light and power company in Medford.
About that time, one of my uncles showed me a machine he was using with good success by creating deep heat within a patient's chest. Then along came drugs, such as penicillin, which in time conquered the disease. Sanatoriums closed for want of patients. The tuberculosis society that had been raising funds for decades by selling Christmas seals had to turn its attention to other fields.
The state hospital in Pendleton was converted to other uses, and this one was declared surplus and offered for sale at $1 million.
The Western Baptist Bible College in El Cerrito, California, was outgrowing its campus. It had been founded as an interdenominational Bible school in Phoenix in 1935, was acquired by the Baptists in 1943, and had moved to Oakland in 1946 and to El Cerrito in 1956. It needed to move to a larger campus again, but found California real estate prohibitively costly. College officials learned of the availability of these buildings, sent a committee to investigate, began negotiations, and eventually purchased the buildings and 100 acres of land. The move from El Cerrito was accomplished in 1969.
Today we will hear more of the WBC mission from Dr. William Haburn, a member of the faculty, who received his Doctor of Education degree from Oregon State University not long ago.
Comment on Waldo Hills: This spur of the western foothills of the Cascade Range is called the Waldo Hills. They are named for Daniel Waldo, who came with the Applegates in 1843 and settled in this vicinity. He was prominent in early governmental affairs. His sons, William and John, and his daughters and their husbands also settled in what became known as the Waldo Settlement. Clara Waldo, a long time member of the Board of Regents of Oregon Agricultural College, was from this family and vicinity. Because of her active support of higher education for women, the huge residence hall for women built in 1907 was named Waldo Hall in her honor. She frequently came to the campus to be entertained by and to talk with the girls studying home economics, whose classrooms and laboratories were on the lower floor of Waldo Hall.
Comment at Lee Memorial Cemetery: In connection with the 62nd annual commencement of Willamette University, June 15, 1906, Jason Lee's remains were reinterred in the Lee Memorial Cemetery here on D Street in Salem. They had been brought from Quebec where he had passed away while visiting his sister. He rests here with his two wives and his daughter. The remains of his first wife, Anna Maria Pittman Lee, were brought to this site shortly after the mission was moved to Salem in 1841. At the time, this place must certainly have been beautiful with a fine view over a peaceful valley. How it has changed with the onrush of the city!
The rather lengthy inscription on his tomb starts:
To the Memory of the
REV JASON LEE
an itinerate minister of the
Methodist Episcopal Church
member of the New England Conference
and the first Missionary to the Indians
beyond the Rocky Mountains
We'll stop here a few minutes so those who wish can walk the short distance to the graves of these early Methodist missionaries. During the tour we'll be mentioning the names of several who are resting here. One, for example, is Alanson Beers, a carpenter who arrived at the mission in 1837. Others might be found on the cast of persons whose careers we'll follow. From the dates on the stones, it is clear that this is one of the earliest cemeteries in Oregon.
Comment at Chemawa Indian School: This Chemawa Indian School has gone a long way toward accomplishing with federal support what Jason Lee saw the need for but could not accomplish with his meager means. This is a co-educational boarding school operated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, U. S. Department of the Interior. It is planning a centennial celebration two years from now, the school having been started in 1880. At the present time, it has about 250 students in grades 9 through 12 from Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, and a few from western Montana and northern California. In the past, it has at times brought in students from Alaska or Navajos from Arizona and New Mexico, but now it restricts enrollment to Indian youth of the Pacific Northwest. Its curriculum follows the standard graduation requirements for an Oregon high school, but also includes classes in Indian history and culture, tribal constitutions, and Indian literature.
According to the information they have provided us, Chemawa serves some of the West's most needy youth. They come by choice from ages 13 to 18. Many are refugees from public schools, where the drop-out rate of Indian students is very high, or from homes they could not tolerate. Seventy percent are from single-parent or no parent families.
As you can see, the buildings have deteriorated. Most of them were built 50 or more years ago. Some are more than 70 years old, and were built with an almost total disregard for life safety requirements. Because of the deterioration, school officials have found it difficult to create the "home away from home" atmosphere they believe is necessary for a living-learning situation in which students can study, play, and work, and receive the remedial help, special programming, medical, dental, and social guidance necessary to complete their development.
The school passed through a crisis recently. It had been allowed to deteriorate to the point where it either would have to be improved substantially, replaced totally, or closed down permanently. Plans for an extensive new campus were drawn up. Congress has been persuaded to appropriate several million dollars to start the first phase of building it. The new campus lies to the east and south, away from the railroad, freeway, and highway. The people you talk with here are enthusiastic about continuing the unique work of this school well into its second century.
Comment en route from Chemawa to Gervais Claim: Jason Lee was a big fellow (6 ft. 3 in. tall) and very strong from his hard work as a youth in the northeastern logging camps until his health broke here in Oregon after a bout with fever, probably malaria. He was fair with blond hair and blue eyes, in spite of his fierce, dark beard in the only picture of him which apparently is available. His actions might be described as deliberate rather than slow. He could be an inspiring lecturer and preacher, as attested by his success in raising money for his mission work.
When he first came to Oregon in 1834, he was accompanied by his nephew, the Rev. Daniel Lee, also a missionary; Cyrus Shepard who was a dedicated teacher; Philip Edwards, also a teacher; and Courtney Walker, a frontiersman who was knowledgeable in Indian ways and frontier living. They traveled with Nathaniel Wyeth, narrowly missing being left behind because the Lees spent so much time preaching and raising money along the way to join Wyeth's party. Freight for the mission was sent around the Horn to Fort Vancouver on the brig May Dacre.
After an adventurous journey, Lee arrived at Ft. Vancouver and immediately struck it off well with the Chief Factor, John McLoughlin. The mission was intended to be to the Flathead Indians of Montana. However, McLoughlin influenced Lee to stay in the Willamette River Valley. Many are the debates on the reasons for and the merits of this decision. The references appended to this scenario give several different versions.
Comment at Joseph Gervais Farm: McLoughlin supplied Lee with horses and provisions to explore the Willamette Valley. The party traveled by the trapper route through the Tualatin Plains and the Chehalem Valley to the Willamette. There they swam their horses across the river and rode south to French Prairie. At that time there were about a dozen families of retired Canadian Hudson's Bay Company employees living in the area.
In September of 1834, they arrived at the farm of one of these Canadians, Joseph Gervais, who kindly suggested they camp in his melon and cucumber patch while they selected a site and built their first building. The prairie was largely covered by tall, coarse grass and you can appreciate the merit of camping in a tilled area. Gervais himself was well known and respected, having first come to the west with the Astor overland party.
The Gervais property, as indicated in the Marion and Linn Counties Historical Atlas, is shown to be on the north side of the road. The exact location of the melon patch is not known. However, it might have been near the area where we are parked.
Comment en route to Wheatland: The next day, Lee's party saddled up and rode on up the valley. There, a short distance from Gervais farm, they found a "broad, rich river bottom stretching two miles along the river, well watered with timber near at hand."
Returning with supplies, they started building their first log structure in October and moved in on November 3, 1834, just as the rainy season was beginning. When they moved in, only 10 feet of the roof was covered!
We'll eat lunch here and then walk over to where the mission was first built. It was a log structure 32 ft. long, 18 ft. wide, and a story and a half high. The floor was of split plank and the roof was shingled with shakes cut from a fir log four feet in diameter. Additions were constructed from time to time. Sketches of these buildings are shown in several of the references.
In the spring of 1835, 30 acres were plowed and planted with wheat and other seed supplied by John McLoughlin. Jason Lee himself salted six barrels of salmon.
Before the building was entirely finished, three Indian children came to the mission, two of them orphans. Of these three, one died, one was dismissed, and one ran away the next spring. Others, including Indian slaves, soon arrived. However, they were ministering to a dying race. Thus, of fourteen children received in the home the first year, five died, five ran away, and of the remaining four, two died the next year. Of twenty-five received in 1836, sixteen fell ill. By 1842, the Indians had almost disappeared from the valley.
Comment en route to Salem: About this time, it became apparent that Lee had larger plans for the mission work. The Willamette Valley operation was to be a supply base for mission outposts scattered about the Pacific Northwest. To do this, more help was needed. Accordingly, Lee appealed to the Mission Board for farmers, blacksmiths, doctors, and carpenters. He asked that the Board send families, but that the wives must really want to go to Oregon. "A greater favour could not be bestowed upon this country than to send to it pious, industrious, intelligent females."
The Mission Board went one better--it sent a lady to be Lee's wife. She was Anna Maria Pittman, a 33-year-old school teacher.
The party arrived by ship in 1836 and was known as the first reinforcement. Their names are given in the list of the cast. Miss Pittman was a poet and a prolific writer. After a month of suspense, Lee asked her to be his bride, and she answered that she'd have to think it over! So he waited a month, when she accepted via a sentimental (by our present standards) poem.
White's House. Among the party was Dr. Elijah White, a physician. A house with a hospital wing was built for him about a mile from the mission. The house we are passing on the left may have been this building. (See Oregon for the Curious.)
With added help, events began to move too rapidly to treat them in detail now, so they are outlined as follows:
1835 - Monday, Nov. 30, commenced instruction to the children of mission and neighbors.
1836 - Lt. William Slacum sent by U.S. Navy to visit and report on the state of affairs in the Willamette and Columbia River areas. He reported favorably on the mission.
1837 - Arrival of First Reinforcement in May.
Missionaries formed a temperance society and prevailed on Ewing Young to cease building a still to make whiskey. They helped finance a party with Young as its leader to go to California to bring back cattle. Young sailed for California January 2.
Marriage of Jason Lee to Anna Maria Pittman.
Marriage of Cyrus Shepard to Susan Downing.
Arrival of Second Reinforcement in September.
Return of Young and his party with 630 cattle; cost: about $8.00 apiece.
Jason Lees and Shepards explored upper reaches of the Willamette River and down the Salmon River; honeymooned at Ocean Lake.
1838 - Daniel Lee and H. K. Perkins started mission at The Dalles.
Jason Lee explored the Umpqua River Valley.
Jason Lee departed for the east to generate further enthusiasm for missions and settlers in Oregon, taking with him two Chinook boys and a petition to the U. S. Congress asking for it to secure rights of settlers in Oregon.
Death of Anna Maria Pittman Lee and infant son, June 26, 1838.
1839 - Thomas J. Farnham and the Peoria party of immigrants arrived in Oregon. This first group of American settlers other than missionaries was influenced to come to Oregon by listening to Jason Lee and the Chinook Indian boys describe the beauty and richness of the area.
1840 - Cyrus Shepard died on January 1, completing his wish "to live and die in this blessed cause."
Jason Lee returned to Oregon on the ship Lausanne with large group of missionaries and craftsmen; the so-called Great Reinforcement. He also brought his new bride, Lucy Thompson Lee.
Four new missions were started at: Nisqually on Puget Sound, Clatsop Plains, Umpqua River, and Willamette Falls. All but the one at Willamette Falls (Oregon City) were abandoned within a few years because of the dying out of the Indians. As Rev. H.K. Hines wrote, "They (the Indians) were darkly, terribly, certainly doomed."
Of those sent to Willamette Falls, Rev. Alvan F. Waller became noted as a church leader and somewhat of a commercial entrepreneur. He was at the center of a land claim dispute with John McLoughlin about which much has been written and opposing sides taken. Waller later was a member of the original Board of Trustees of the Oregon Institute, predecessor of Willamette University. We'll be visiting Waller Hall, the oldest remaining building at the University.
1841 - Farnham carried to Congress a petition from loyal Americans written by David Leslie, acting superintendent of Willamette Mission, asking for U.S. control and termination of Hudson's Bay Company control over Oregon. It was presented to Congress by Senator Lewis F. Linn.
Ewing Young died, leaving a large estate and no known heirs. To resolve the problem of handling his estate, a meeting was held on February 17 and 18 at the Methodist Mission. Action was taken to choose a committee to draft a constitution and, until a code of laws was adopted, to operate under the laws of the State of New York. Also, Dr. Ira L. Babcock was elected Supreme Judge with probate powers.
New Mission facilities were constructed at Chemeketa Plain at the present location of Salem and the buildings on Mission Bottom were abandoned. A grist mill and a saw mill were constructed and a new Indian Manual Labor School was started. Progress was slow in its construction.
Lt. Charles Wilkes of the U.S. Navy was sent to tour and report on the Oregon situation. He held a dim view of the Methodist Mission activities.
1842 - Missionaries under Jason Lee's leadership founded the Oregon Institute, to be a school of higher learning for children of settlers and missionaries, since few Indians remained to train.
Interest in civil government was renewed. So-called "Wolf Meetings" were held to vote bounties for wolves and other predatory animals. During the first of these meetings a committee was also appointed to consider steps for the civil and military protection of the colony.
On March 20, Lucy Thompson Lee died in childbirth, leaving a daughter, Lucy Anna Marie Lee. Jason Lee, although severely depressed, continued to press his work. He sensed the rising of considerable antagonism to the Mission programs with their mounting costs. The problem was aggravated because of the disappearance of the Indian tribes through disease.
1843 - Rev. Daniel Lee resigned his post and returned to the east.
Much dissention developed on the part of the missionaries and letters criticizing Jason Lee were sent to the Mission Board.
1844 - Lee left in December 1843 for the east to plead his cause, not knowing that his replacement, Rev. George Gary, was already sailing for Oregon. Because of storms, Lee's ship was delayed in crossing the bar of the Columbia River until February. On reaching the Sandwich Islands, he learned about Gary. Taking the only means available for fast travel, Lee sailed for Mexico, crossed Mexico to the Gulf, and made his way up the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, reaching New York City May 27, 1844.
There he eloquently defended his work before the Missionary Board after which he was exonerated and publicly vindicated.
Meanwhile, the Mission activities were all closed by Gary and the facilities in their entirety were sold. The Indian Manual Labor School, which had cost $10,000 and lands at Chemeketa were sold to the Oregon Institute for $4,000. The Institute trustees then platted the land and sold it to raise funds for building the Institute buildings. The Institute was incorporated as Willamette University in 1853.
1845 - Much wearied from his efforts, Lee returned to his home town of Stanstead, Canada, to rest at the home of his sister. There he contracted a cold that aggravated his tuberculosis, leading to his death on March 12, 1845, at the age of 41.
As Daniel Lee so ably expressed it, "His sun has gone down at noon."
Comment on Mission Mill Museum: The site of the new Mission headquarters on Chemeketa Plains was in the area around the intersection of Commercial and Division Streets, which we pass as we return to Salem from Mission Bottom. The Jason Lee house and the old parsonage were originally located at this intersection. Later they were moved to the present location of the Mission Mill Museum. We shall have a guided tour of these interesting buildings.
Note how the Mission continued to be involved with the Oregon State Government in some interesting ways. Thus, the first State Treasury office was in the old parsonage building.
Some booklets and pamphlets of interest to history buffs can be purchased at the museum.
Comment at Willamette University: Here at the original site of the Indian Manual Labor School, we now have a beautiful modern university with an enrollment of about 1,750 men and women students and a faculty of about 125. The University is especially noted for its colleges in liberal arts, law, music, and theater, and its graduate school of administration.
The Indian Manual Labor School was located just to the east of the former playing field, which area is now fairly central to the campus. The building in its time was one of the larger structures in Oregon. It burned down in 1872.
The oldest building now is Waller Hall, named for Rev. Waller, who came to Oregon with the Great Reinforcement. It was begun in 1864. It is beautifully maintained, as we shall see when we stroll about the campus.
Comment on passing Deepwood House and Bush House: While they do not directly relate to the present tour, these two houses are of interest and you may wish to return on your own to see them.
Deepwood, built in 1894, is a typical late Victorian house in the exuberant Queen Anne style. An entrance fee is asked.
The Bush House and Barn, built in 1878 by Asahel Bush, a politician, editor, printer, and banker, is of Italianate style, with the roof line altered to a gable from the usual flat or hipped line of the style. The fine interiors include original mantles and wallpapers. (Fee.)
Those wishing to read further into these early events and places in Oregon history will find the following references to be of interest and often to present different points of view.
The Oregon Archives, 1841-1843. David C. Duniway and Neil R. Riggs, editors. Reprinted by the Oregon Historical Society from the Oregon Historical Quarterly.
The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, Vol. XXIX : History of Oregon, vol. 1, 1834-1848. The History Company Publishers, 1886.
Jason Lee, Prophet of the New Oregon. Cornelius J. Brosman. The Macmillan Company, New York, 1932.
Mission to Oregon. Nancy Peacocke Fadeley. Published on the occasion of the first meeting in Oregon of the General Conference of the United Methodist Church April 1976.
Reflections on the Jason Lee Mission. Lewis Judson. Wyncoop-Blair, 1971.
Life and Letters of Mrs. Jason Lee. Theressa Gay. Metropolitan Press, Portland, Oregon, 1936.
Ten Years in Oregon. Daniel Lee and Joseph Frost. Ye Galleon Press, 1968.
Give All to Oregon: Missionary Pioneers of the Far West. Cecil P. Dryden. Sounders of Toronto, Ltd., 1968.
Oregon, Her History and Her Great Men. John B. Horner. J.K. Gill Company, Portland, Oregon, 1921.
General History of Oregon. Charles H. Carey. Binfords & Mort, Portland, Oregon, 1943.
The Western Shore, Oregon Country Essays. Thomas Vaughn, ed. Durham and Downey, Portland, Oregon, 1976. ("The Missionary Idea in Oregon," by Robt. J. Loewenberg, pp 151-181.)
Wagon Train Journal, Travels in the Great Western Prairies the Anahuac and Rocky Mountains and in the Oregon Territory. Thomas J. Farnham. Greely and McElrath Publishers, 1843. Reprinted 1977 by Rodney R. McCallum.
For some interesting occasional comments here and there, see also:
Oregon for the Curious. Ralph Friedman. The Caxton Printers, Ltd. Caldwell, Idaho, 1874.
Willamette Landings. Howard McKinley Corning. Oregon Historical Society, 2nd ed., 1973.